electrospinning rotating drum collector - Spingenix


Electrospinning of PEO Nanofibers

Electrospinning of PEO Nanofibers. Electrospinning is a versatile technique for fabricating nanofibers from various materials. Among them, polyethylene oxide (PEO) has gained considerable attention in recent years due to its unique properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, and low toxicity. PEO nanofibers have potential applications in the fields of tissue engineering, drug delivery, and sensor technology, among others. In this article, we will discuss the electrospinning process of PEO nanofibers in detail, including its advantages, challenges, and applications.

Electrospinning Process of PEO Nanofibers

The electrospinning process involves the use of a high voltage electric field to create a charged jet of a polymer solution or melt, which is then collected onto a grounded substrate to form nanofibers. The process of electrospinning PEO nanofibers is relatively simple and involves the following steps:

  1. Preparation of the PEO solution: PEO is dissolved in a solvent, typically water or a mixture of water and ethanol, to form a homogenous solution.
  2. Electrospinning set-up: The electrospinning set-up consists of a high voltage power supply, a syringe with a needle, a syringe pump, and a grounded collector.
  3. Electrospinning process: The PEO solution is loaded into the syringe, and a voltage is applied to the needle to create a charged jet of the solution. The charged jet is then collected onto the grounded collector, where it solidifies to form nanofibers.
  4. Post-treatment: The nanofibers are then post-treated to remove any residual solvent or other impurities.

Advantages of Electrospinning PEO Nanofibers

  • Biocompatibility: PEO is a biocompatible polymer and has been extensively used in biomedical applications, including tissue engineering and drug delivery.
  • Biodegradability: PEO is biodegradable and can be easily degraded by enzymes present in the body, making it an ideal material for biomedical applications.
  • High surface are PEO nanofibers have a high surface area to volume ratio, making them ideal for applications such as sensor technology and catalysis.
  • Tunable properties: The properties of PEO nanofibers can be easily tuned by varying the electrospinning parameters, such as solution concentration, needle diameter, and applied voltage.


Challenges in Electrospinning PEO Nanofibers

  • Solution viscosity: PEO solutions have a relatively high viscosity, which can lead to the formation of droplets rather than nanofibers during the electrospinning process.
  • Bead formation: Bead formation is a common problem during electrospinning, and can lead to the formation of non-uniform nanofibers.
  • Solution stability: PEO solutions can be sensitive to environmental factors such as temperature and humidity, which can affect the stability of the solution and the quality of the nanofibers.

Applications of Electrospun PEO Nanofibers

  • Tissue engineering: PEO nanofibers have been used as scaffolds for tissue engineering applications, such as bone and cartilage regeneration.
  • Drug delivery: PEO nanofibers can be used as drug delivery systems due to their high surface area and ability to encapsulate drugs.
  • Sensor technology: PEO nanofibers have potential applications in the development of sensors for environmental monitoring and medical diagnostics.

Features and Benefits of Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions™

What are the differences between Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ and also various other 3D items on the market?

Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ products differ in that they can be tailored to fit the scientists’ demands and applications. Rival items are readily available in limited formats. Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ are available in a variety of layouts. Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ are made from biomimetic synthetic polycaprolactone (PCL) which is softer as well as carefully appears like biological tissue as well as this in turn gives a much better 3D environment for the cells to grow on. Some rival products are constructed from tight inflexible polymers such as polystyrene that aren’t biocompatible.

Can the Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ be developed right into a three-dimensional structure, e.g., pancreatic, liver, heart?

Yes. This is our location of expertise and also we can develop complicated shapes/geometries to design different organs throughout the body. We recently made history in creating the very first artificial throat dental implanted into a human patient. Please describe the Business page of our website for more information.

Will your Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ support the growth of cells, and if so, what kind of cells, i.e., adult distinguished cells, adult progenitor cells, adult bacterium layer family tree stem cells, adult pluripotent stem cells, grown-up totipotent stem cells?

Yes. The nanofibers support the development of all sorts of cells. With stem cells, we can accomplish faster development rates while maintaining greater percents of pluripotent stem cells compared to typical flat culture surfaces.

Can you get reproducible information utilizing Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ ?

Reproducibility of data utilizing Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ is great. We set the industry requirement for batch-to-batch uniformity.

Exists batch-to-batch variability?

Each batch of Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ are tested for its physical buildings, porosity and suitability for cell accessory and practicality. Just batches fulfilling stringent requirements are launched by our High quality System. A number of our consumers locate that Nanofiber Solutions products are much more reproducible than other sources of electrospun fibers to which they might have access.

Physical Properties

Do cells proliferate at the exact same price on Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ contrasted to tissue
culture polystyrene?

The response is: No! Cells typically reveal a much more quick expansion/growth price on our
contrasted to traditional 2D tissue society polystyrene. For example, Stem Cells have revealed a 3x greater
development price on Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ .

The length of time can you culture cells for?

Relying on the cell kind as well as the technique of analysis to be carried out, Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ 3D
Scaffold plates are normally recommended for cell society experiments lasting as much as numerous weeks.
Preferably, the extra mobile matrix proteins left by previous passages should create an environment
a lot more suited for far better long term growth, yet this has actually not been examined. The fibers will not deteriorate or
detach from home plate. The fibers will certainly keep a tight bond to the bottom of the society location. Note:
Physical damages can take place if the fibers are touched with a pipette idea.

Just how well does type-I collagen bind to the Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ ?

Effectively. Nanofiber Solutions can either make collagen nanofiber scaffolds or we can make
artificial nanofibers as well as coat them with collagen.

Can the Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ develop tubes of different sizes?

Yes. It is really simple for us to make tubes varying from a few hundred micrometers in size to
numerous centimeters in size.

Can the Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ form tubes of different dimensions within the exact same framework?

Yes. We can integrate various shapes and sizes together right into complicated, 3-D structures.

What are the physical dynamics, e.g., sheer pressure, tensile stamina, stretchability, compressive force,

The physical homes Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ depend upon the sort of polymer made use of in
the production process. For instance, something made from polyurethane (PU) will certainly be extremely
elastomeric like an elastic band, while something made from polyglycolic acid (PGA) will initially be a lot more
rigid and tight.

Will Certainly your Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ bind to carbohydrate moieties, e.g., glycosaminogycans,
glycoproteins, glycolipids?

Yes. We can purchase readily available conjugated polymers or conjugate the polymers
ourselves with fairly straightforward cross-linking protocols from the literary works.
Exactly how are the Nanofiber scaffolds attached to the cells society plate.

The Nanofiber inserts remainder within at the end of home plate as well as are not attached to all-time low. For
home plates, the Nanofibers are electrospun onto a slim layer of cells society grade polystyrene then
bound to home plate base.

What is ordinary size of fibers in NanoAligned ™ as well as Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™?

The ordinary size of a PCL nanofiber is ~ 700nm. We can regulate the dimension of the fibers to make
bigger or smaller dimensions if required.

What Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ made of?

Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ are constructed from polycaprolactone (PCL) as well as variety in density from

Are other polymers available?

Various other polymers (polystyrene, polyethylene terephthalate in addition to many others) can be special
gotten, please call us for details.

What is the porosity of Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ ?

Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ have a porosity of above 90%.

Are Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ eco-friendly?

Yes as well as no. The nanofibers can be totally degradable or long-term depending on the polymer.


Exist any kind of procedures or technical notes offered for the customers?

A range of example procedures can be located in the Technical Resources area of our website
These are being constantly updated as well as broadened upon as well as presently include general information regarding picking as well as utilizing Nanofiber
Solutions ™ ; examples of just how to expand specific cell kinds; compatible logical strategies
as well as specialized applications.

What evaluation techniques are compatible with Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ ?

Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ work with a broad variety of basic cell and molecular
techniques. These include various biochemical assays, histology (tissue handling, addiction, embedding
and also sectioning), fluorescence microscopy, immunocytochemistry, in-situ hybridization, electron
microscopy, bright area and also stage microscopy; removal of nucleic acid and also overall protein etc

Can you coat Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ .

Yes. The majority of standard finishing methods for cell culture plastic are compatible with Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™.
consisting of making use of extra-cellular matrix proteins, collagen, fibronectin, laminin, poly D/L.
lysine, etc.

Can you get rid of cells from Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ ?

Yes. Cells can be quickly removed from the scaffolds utilizing a combination of trypsin-EDTA or Accutase ™.
plus moderate anxiety if needed.

Is genetics evaluation feasible with cells removed from Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ ?

Yes. Cells can be removed from NanoECM ™ for genetics evaluation.

Can you do co-culture experiments?

There are numerous options offered for executing co-culture experiments, including; 1) 2 or more.
cell kinds can be seeded onto one Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ concurrently; 2) Our Interactive.
Microenvironment System (IMEMS, part number: IMEMO1 random, IMEMO2 straightened) allows co-culture.
of a number of various cell kinds for boosted communication as well as cellular feedback. Cells have chemical.
communication, but not physical call which allows easy post-analysis of each cell kind. Each layer.
within the IMEMS enables high-resolution imaging of the cells after the culture duration. Refer to our.
Modern technology web page for more information on the IMEMS.


Can you draw out healthy protein and also nucleic acids from cells within Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ ?

Yes, common procedures for RNA and also overall healthy protein extraction will certainly work from cells expanded on Nanofiber.
Solutions ™ .

Can you explant tissues onto Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ ?

It is possible to take explanted tissue and continue to allow it expand in 3D in Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ 3D.
Scaffolds. Please describe our Technical Resources section on our web site for publication references.

Can the Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ be positioned in suspension and aerosolized?

No. Our Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ are continuous fibers that can be positioned in suspension.
( for example, in a large commercial bioreactor) however it would certainly be extremely hard to aerosolize them.

Compatibility of Scaffolds.

Can you perform FACS analysis on cells cultured on Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ ?

Yes. Cells can be gotten rid of from Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ making use of conventional procedures with.
trypsin-EDTA, as well as Accutase ™ for FACS analysis.

Are Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ suitable for cell invasion as well as cell movement assays?

Yes. It is possible to measure the price of movement utilizing image analysis of histological sections, or by.
fluorescently labeling cells. Several cell migration video clips are published on our site. Please go to our.
Innovation area to see the live cell imaging video clips.

Exists a protocol for doing transfections on Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ ?

Yes. Commercially available transfection sets work with Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ .

Are Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ plates suitable with basic lab plate. readers/instrumentation?

Yes. The physical measurements are the same as basic cells culture plates.


Should I seed wells with the exact same variety of cells I utilize on level plates?

Not likely– Among the major benefits of Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ is that they simulate in vivo.
physical structures. This suggests there will be 2-3x more area on our scaffolds; which will need.
more cells for seeding objectives to get a real 3D cell environment.

What occurs if greater than the suggested numbers of cells are seeded onto Nanofiber.
Solutions ™ ?

The seeding densities advised are standards as well as might require to be maximized depending on cell.
kind. Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ will have 3x the surface area compared to requirement.
polystyrene layers so cell seeding might need to be maximized for each and every cell phenotype. Please describe the.
Technical Resources of our internet site for more details.

Do cells expanding on Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ act the same as cells growing in.
standard 2D cultures?

No, there is currently much evidence to reveal that cells expanding in 3D maintain their indigenous morphology as well as.
functionality which stands for a much more exact gene and also healthy protein expression account as would certainly be located.
in vivo. There are several documents highlighting these distinctions consisting of some Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ 3D.


Are Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ cells society dealt with?

Yes. Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ are surface area plasma (tissue society) treated to attend to.
exceptional wettability and prepare to make use of out of the product packaging.

Do the Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ need to be dealt with or equilibrated before usage?

Before utilize we recommend a thirty minutes pre-incubation in the media plus any organic components.
of rate of interest at 37 ° C, followed by aspiratio.

Are other types of sterilization possible for the scaffolds?

Yes. Gamma irradiated sterile products are available. Furthermore, most of our partners have actually made use of.
70% ethanol solution successfully.

Are Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ multiple-use?

Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ are a single usage, disposable product.

Do Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ have an expiration date?
No. For ideal efficiency Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ are recommended to be made use of within.
a year of acquisition.

Are Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ chemically resistant.

The surface residential or commercial properties can be impacted by specific chemicals. Some solvents like acetone or xylene.
might swell or ruin the scaffold.


Can Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ be imaged using standard light or noticeable microscopy?

Yes. Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ can be imaged using conventional light and also noticeable microscopy.

Do Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ autofluoresce?

No considerable degrees of autofluorescence have been observed from Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ 3D.

Scaffolds making use of common visible wavelengths of light. Under confocal microscopy PCL displays a small.
eco-friendly autofluorescence.

Exactly how can you see your cells expanding in 3D on Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ ?

Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ are optically clear and cells growing on the fibers can be.
imagined utilizing standard microscopy. Various other options to imagine cells growing in 3D in Nanofiber.

Solutions ™  include, but are not restricted to, online cell imaging, fluorescent marker evaluation,.
confocal evaluation, histology making use of a variety of cytological discolorations as well as electron microscopy. Please refer to.
the Technical Source section of the website.

Just how do you approximate cell convergence on Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ ?

Noticeable examination under a light microscopic lense or easy dyes can be used to approximate cell culture.
convergence and also viability. A complete method for a straightforward technique is offered in the Technical Resources.
section of our site. A considerable variety of end-point visualization methods are likewise compatible,.
consisting of real-time cell imaging, fluorescent pen analysis, confocal analysis, biochemical assays,.
histological evaluation using a series of cytological spots as well as electron microscopy.

Other General Questions Regarding Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ .

What styles of Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ are offered?

Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ are currently readily available in the following layouts: Random as well as.Aligned orientations. Requirement well plate formats offered are: 6, 24, 96, and also 384 wells/plate.
If desired, Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ 3D inserts are also readily available in 6, 12, 24 well layouts and also can fit a.
range of society plates from various suppliers. Inserts are also available for 60 and 100 mm cells.
society meals. Spingenix Electrospinning Solutions ™ 3D layered chamber slides and also the 6-well Interactive.
Microenvironment System (IMEMS) complete our line of product.

What Does The Rotary Drum Collector Do How And Where Is The Electric Voltage Conducted From The Drum

Turning drum fanatic. At the molecular level, it is currently viable to enhance textiles, offer improvements, boost resistance along with helpful houses.
The table listed below sums up the usual procedures that have in fact been established for the building of polymer-based nanofibers. The term nano has actually attracted much interest in fiber study studies, the commercial potential of nanofibers is still vague. Much gone over possible markets are filtering, safety and security clothes as well as brightening towels. With the expansion as well as also renovation of nanofiber production strategies, the manufacturing rate will certainly lower, as well as likewise the growth of pertinent markets will definitely wind up being exceptionally interesting.

Turning drum collection agency

In order to offer the wanted buildings such as dimension, morphology, setup, flow of the fibers produced in the electrospinning treatment, only the procedure specs must be well known. Process control is hard as a result of the fact that several requirements affect the process.
The structures of the polymer solution are the most crucial requirements affecting the electrospinning procedure as well as the buildings of the fibers developed. The parameters of the solution are the molecular weight of the polymer, the surface stress, the electrical conductivity and the dielectric residences of the polymer service.

Revolving drum collector fisher

Amongst the variables affecting remedy density is the molecular weight of the polymer. In its entirety, when samples of numerous molecular weights of the same polymer are liquified, the service received from the high molecular weight polymer has a greater density than the reduced molecular weight option. Put simply, as the molecular weight of the polymer boosts, the density of the service additionally improves.

Revolving drum collection agency nanofiber

Similar to the increase in molecular weight, the boost in concentration likewise enhances the complexity of the polymer chain along with for that reason the light beam in the electrospinning process.

Spraybase revolving drum debt collection agency

To guarantee its continuity. With elevating emphasis, the formation of rounds in the obtained nanofibers lowers, while the shape of the rounds adjustments from round to flat (Figure 3.20) (Kozanoğlu, 2006). Minimum polymer chain intricacy along with a result marginal density is required for electrospinning. Pricey a thickness makes it hard to pump the treatment with the nozzle. Furthermore, too expensive a thickness can create the solution to completely dry at the recommendation of the nozzle prior to electrospinning begins.

A rise in viscosity enhances the intricacy of the polymer chain as well as makes certain regular jet formation in the electrospinning treatment (Üstündağ as well as Karaca, 2009). With raising thickness, the fiber size likewise improves.

When the emphasis of completely complimentary solvent bits is high as a result of surface stress, the tendency of the solvent particles to accumulation and also happen round rises. In this situation, as the polymer jet transfers in the direction of the debt collector plate, surface area stress can develop grains to create along the jet.

High thickness shows much more communication between the solvent fragments and also the polymer. When the solution is extended under the influence of tensions, the solvent molecules commonly have a tendency to diffuse right into the center polymer fragments, so the solvent bits tend to stick to each other drunk is lowered surface tension


At the molecular level, it is presently viable to improve fabrics, provide improvements, increase resistance in addition to useful structures. With boosting focus, the development of balls in the gotten nanofibers lowers, while the shape of the spheres modifications from round to degree (Number 3.20) (Kozanoğlu, 2006). An increase in density improves the intricacy of the polymer chain along with ensure continual jet formation in the electrospinning process (Üstündağ as well as Karaca, 2009). With boosting viscosity, the fiber diameter furthermore raises. When the concentration of complimentary solvent molecules is high due to area stress, the propensity of the solvent fragments to buildup as well as likewise come to be round boosts.

The buildings of the polymer option are the most essential criteria influencing the electrospinning treatment and also the buildings of the fibers developed. Among the variables affecting solution thickness is the molecular weight of the polymer. As a whole, when samples of various molecular weights of the exact same polymer are dissolved, the service gotten from the high molecular weight polymer has a greater density than the minimized molecular weight option. Minimum polymer chain details as well as an outcome marginal density is required for electrospinning. An increase in thickness boosts the intricacy of the polymer chain as well as makes certain continuous jet development in the electrospinning procedure (Üstündağ and also Karaca, 2009).

Electrospinning collector

Electrospinning collector. The electrospinning process is known as a multidisciplinary process that includes areas such as fluid dynamics, polymer chemistry, physics, electrophysics, mechanical engineering and textile engineering.

electrospinning drum collector

It basically consists of three main parts. High-voltage power supply, power supply (syringe, metal needle, etc.), collector plate (circuit board, rotating cylinder, etc.). With the electrospinning process it is possible to obtain surfaces derived from polymers made of nanofibers with diameters ranging from a few microns to less than 100 nm.

electrospinning rotating drum collector

Our electrospinning machine is designed for R&D and laboratory study and multi-needle nanofiber production. It is designed for the development of nanofiber-based products in many industrial sectors such as textile and air filter, chemical, defense, construction, medical, pharmaceutical and agricultural industries.

rotating drum collector electrospinning

In addition, organizations researching nanofibers and electrospinning can work more easily with the electrospinning machine we use.

cells death collector electrospin electricuted

Spengenix Electrospinning is designed to simplify production with its user-friendly technology. With needs-based design, it fills in the missing points in the processes and, with the plasma technology integrated into the system, enables more hydrophilic surfaces to be achieved by increasing surface energy and forming a surface more effectively. Scattered or aligned fibrous structure

cells death collector electrospin electrocuted

Polymer solution, process parameters and environmental parameters influence the manufacturing process of nanofibers by electrospinning processes. These parameters can be grouped under three main headings.

cells seeding collector electrospin electricuted

The molecular weight of the polymer is an effective parameter for the structure of the fibers produced.

collector choice for electrospinning

The concentration of the polymer solution is an important parameter affecting the fabrication process of nanofibers by electrospinning. With increasing concentration of the polymer solution used, polymer particles in micro and nano sizes are formed.

collector less electrospinning

If it is increased further, vortex structures are observed. When the concentration is reduced, electrospray occurs instead of electrospinning.

collector used in electrospinning to do carbonization

When the right concentration is provided and other parameters are increased, the production of ideal nanofibers is achieved.

collectors of electrospinning

In general, molecular weight indicates the viscosity of polymer chains in solutions. By increasing the molecular weight, smooth fiber and microstrip are obtained.

electrospinning collector design

The viscosity of the polymer solution plays an important role in determining fiber morphology. It has been proven that continuous and smooth fibers cannot be obtained with very low viscosity (Ismail et al., 2019).

electrospinning collector distance

The viscosity of the polymer solution used can be changed by adjusting the concentration of the polymer in the solution. The viscosity range of different polymer or oligomer solutions used in the electrospinning process is different.

electrospinning collector material

The surface tension is a dominant factor for the low viscosity of the solution used. Only fibers with a pearl structure are formed. When using a solution of suitable viscosity, continuous fibers are formed.

electrospinning collectors

The surface tension of the fiber solution produced in the electrospinning process also plays a very important role. Different solvents can contribute to different surface tensions. At a fixed concentration, the surface tension of the solution decreases and the beaded fibers formed can be replaced by smooth fibers.

Electrospinning gel collector

The conductivity of the solution used in the preparation is determined depending on the type of polymer and the type of solvent. In general, natural polymers are known to increase the chargeability of the polymer beam with more ions under higher voltage under electric field and produce weak fibers.

electrospinning liquid collector

The adjustment can be made by adding ionic salts such as KH2PO4, NaCl, etc. to impart electrical conductivity to the electrospinning solution (Matabola and Moutloali, 2013).

electrospinning rotating collector

The voltage applied in the system plays a very important role in the electrospinning process. By applying a high voltage, the polymer solution is electrically charged with a specific electrical conductivity.

electrospinning système collector

As the applied voltage increases, the diameter of the fiber produced decreases due to the increase in electrostatic repulsive forces on the die. This reduces the pearl structure. However, at very high voltages, increased jet instability can be observed as the Taylor cone collapses into the nozzle.

how does rotating collector affect fiber diameter electrospinning

As a result, increased bead formation can be observed. As the voltage increases to a certain level, beading decreases while the bead shape changes from spherical to spindle-shaped.

melt electrospinning collector distance

However, as the voltage is further increased, the spheres again approach the spherical shape. That is, the applied voltage must have an upper limit.

novel method of electrospinning rotating dual electrode collector design

The high voltage applied by the power supply to the main components in the electrospinning process can result in increased beading after the Taylor cone is pushed back into the nozzle.

rotating collector electrospinning

Increasing the tension up to a certain level will produce smooth fibers, while increasing it further can result in structural degradation.

rotating continual collector electrospinning

In addition, the surface tension and the viscosity of the solution can be adjusted by changing the solvent mixture and the mass ratio.


using textiles as an electrospinning collector

Sometimes it is possible to obtain a high conductivity of the solution by using an organic acid as a solvent.

why collector is grounded in electrospinning?

Solution Flow Rate: The flow rate of the polymer solution in the syringe to the manifold is another important process parameter. In general, a lower flow rate is recommended because the polymer solution takes time to polarize. If the flow rate is too high, large diameter fibers will ball up.