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Nanofiber equipment

Nanofiber equipment. Textile and clothing industry; It is a traditional and very important economic sector that provides jobs for many people (more than 2 million people) in Europe. European Union countries, quota abolition proposals from developed countries such as the United States, Canada and Norway, and increasing competition in Asia have forced the industry to restructure and modernize. Traditional clothing products are no longer enough in EU countries, so EU textile industries are starting to produce innovative and more distinctive features. The most competitive sectors are information technology, biotechnology and nanotechnology.

Nanofiber equipment

Nanotechnology is defined as “the precise use of atoms or molecules to create very small structures”. For fibers in general, “nano” provides information about the diameter size of the fiber. However, when a fiber is referred to as nano, different industries use different but very important terms. Some fibers less than one micron in diameter are referred to as nanofibers, while others define nanofibers as fibers with a diameter of 0.3 microns or less.

Electrospinning equipment nanofibers

Although many markets for polymer nanofibers have been studied, it is still too early and very difficult to predict consumption levels and sales volumes. In general, many applications show that there is still a long way to go before the fibers in question are nanofibers.
The production of nanofibers can be done in different ways:

How to equip nanofiber spingenix

Another very interesting method to produce nanofibers is the fibrillation of linear cell fibers like cellulose into smaller nanometer-sized fibers. Spingenix Industries presented the results of several studies on this topic, including processes that convert easily fibrillated lyocell fibers into nanofiber networks. Although the fibers produced by this technique have moderate strength properties, their size and shape vary considerably.

Nanofiber electrospinning equipment

Because the production conditions for lyocell fibers are so critical, this technique is unlikely to be successful and is expected to be at odds with the production conditions required to produce good lyocell fibers that do not fibrillate in other applications.

Nanofiber equipment market

Today, the meltblown technique is the most common production technique used to produce large quantities of small diameter fibers. However, the diameter of the fibers produced by this process is generally 2 microns or more. In addition, although the strength of the fibers produced by this method is low, the diameter of the fibers varies greatly along the length of the fiber and between fibers during manufacture.
Production of fibers by fusion method, which is suitable for the production of fibers in large quantities, many research and development studies have been carried out to modify this method to enable the production of nanofibers by direct fusion production technique. Most of these studies are “confidential” studies known only to the researchers and as such the details have not yet been fully disclosed. Most likely, Nano Technics Korea’s nanofiber filter material is made by modified smelting process instead of electric production.

Nanofiber production equipment

Aberdeen Nanofiber Technology is another company working to develop a modified meltblown process. Based on this company’s project, nanofibers are formed by a melt-blowing process using a modular die. The fibers produced are a blend of micron and finer fibers. This method is an inexpensive manufacturing method that allows the use of thermoplastic polymers. This technique appears to have the potential to produce large quantities of polymer-based nanofibers at a cost of less than $10 per kilogram. Although not defined as a meltblowing process, it was developed under license by Neumag (Germany) to split the molten polymer stream into small strands by impinging the air jet.

Hills Corporation took a different approach to melt blown by using thin spreader plate technology. With the new dies they used, the number of holes per inch increased to over 100 while the polymer performance per hole decreased. However, the overall output per unit length of the nozzle assembly is the same as in standard meltblowing. With this nozzle technology, the L/D ratio of the nozzle holes is increased to over 10 while the resulting pressure drop is increased from the standard 40 psi to several hundred psi and more.
As a result, the average size of the fused fibers as well as the range of fiber size changes were significantly reduced. Since the nozzle hole diameter varies from 0.1 to 0.15 mm in this process, the polymer must have an MFI of 1000 or more and also be very clean. At this level, the long-term production process is still under development.

The fourth method of making nanofibers is to use bicomponent fibers that can be separated or dissolved. Many approaches have been proposed to use this technology in the fabrication of nanofibers. The most studied approach is the production of sea island type bicomponent fibers using the standard production spinning process.

 

Electrospinning nanofibers

Electrospinning nanofibers. Chitosan [poly(b-1/4)-2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranose] is a polycationic property that has a partial or total effect by incorporating chitin into the cell wall of oysters and some fungi will. Deacetylation in alkaline medium is a biopolymer. Many researchers have found that chitosan is often preferred in biomedical applications due to its biocompatibility, biodegradability, non-toxicity, potential for cell adhesion and proliferation, antimicrobial activity, and its aid in rapid wound healing. However, chitosan can be produced in the form of powder, gel, foam, film, fiber and thread and used in many different forms in many fields (Tikhonov et al., 2006; Peter, 1996; Rao and Sharma, 1994; Rinaudo, 2006) . It is one of the synthetic polymers with mechanical and physical properties, biocompatible and biodegradable.

Electrospinning nanofibers

It is generally obtained by ring-opening polymerization of “ε-caprolactam”. It has a very wide range of uses, especially in the textile industry. Electrospinning can be briefly defined as the production of submicron fineness fibers by the application of electrostatic forces to a polymer solution or melt. This method includes operational steps such as (i) charging the solution with electric charges (ii) Taylor coning (iii) diluting the polymer jet by instability (whiplash instability) in the electric field (iv) diluting, collecting and solidifying. The polymer jet is converted into fibers on the collection mechanism.

Diameter and morphology of fibers obtained by electrospinning processes, solution properties (viscosity, conductivity, molecular weight and polymer concentration, surface tension, type of solvent), process parameters (electric field strength, distance between feeder and collector, feed amount of solution) and environmental conditions (temperature, humidity) (Chong et al., 2007; Lee et al., 2004). It can be seen that the academic and industry interest in the electrospinning method has increased in recent years as it allows the use of simple and efficient nanofibers. Production of natural and synthetic polymers

Nanofiber-based structures are considered as potential materials, due to their high surface-to-volume ratio, high porosity, and very small pore size (Li and Xia, 2004) As the surface tension increases sharply, electrostatic attraction is said to cause various problems. To overcome this problem, smooth nanofibers can be obtained by blending various polymers.

The chitosan (CS) produced at 2% by weight was dissolved homogeneously in 90% strength acetic acid with stirring for 24 h at room temperature. For 7 hours, homogeneous solution, electrogravity tests were performed. The solutions were mixed using a magnetic stirrer (Stuart, SB 162) for two hours at room temperature. The pH of the prepared solutions was determined using indicator cards (indicator strips, Merck) and their viscosity values. Their conductivity was determined using a Brookfield viscometer (DV-E viscometer). It was measured with a WTW brand device (Cond 3110). A spindle of the type S21 with a rotation of 30 rpm was used for viscometer measurements.

The electrospinning process was performed using a laboratory machine (NanoFMG, NS24) designed on the principle of vertical work. Each solution was transferred to syringes with a volume of 10 ml and introduced into an aluminum foil-covered cylindrical manifold using a 20-gauge delivery unit (nozzle), and the amount of the feed solutions was measured in an electric field of 0.50 ml/hour definitely. And the distance was adjusted to 15 cm. A voltage of 34 kV was applied in electrogravity experiments. Alternating current (AC) was used to create the electric field. The experiments were carried out at a relative humidity of 35-42% and at variable temperatures between 26-31 degrees Celsius.

The polycationic nature of chitosan and the strong intramolecular and intermolecular interactions in its chemical structure create significant problems in the electrospinning process. Strong hydrogen bonds prevent the free movement of polymer chain blocks in the electric field and lead to nozzle cracking during the electrospinning process [Li and Hsieh, 2006; Desai and Keith, 2008). In addition, the repulsive forces between the ionic groups in the polymer chain sufficiently prevent entanglement (entanglement) of the polymer chains. This prevents the formation of sufficient and continuous fibers during stretching, bending and impact instability of the polymer jet. These problems result in the formation of globules or irregular beaded fibers during the elongation of the polymer stream rather than the formation of regular fibers as a result of the electrospinning process.