bench-top nanofiber electrospinning and electrospraying unit - Spingenix

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Electrospinning nanofibers

Electrospinning nanofibers. Chitosan [poly(b-1/4)-2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranose] is a polycationic property that has a partial or total effect by incorporating chitin into the cell wall of oysters and some fungi will. Deacetylation in alkaline medium is a biopolymer. Many researchers have found that chitosan is often preferred in biomedical applications due to its biocompatibility, biodegradability, non-toxicity, potential for cell adhesion and proliferation, antimicrobial activity, and its aid in rapid wound healing. However, chitosan can be produced in the form of powder, gel, foam, film, fiber and thread and used in many different forms in many fields (Tikhonov et al., 2006; Peter, 1996; Rao and Sharma, 1994; Rinaudo, 2006) . It is one of the synthetic polymers with mechanical and physical properties, biocompatible and biodegradable.

Electrospinning nanofibers

It is generally obtained by ring-opening polymerization of “ε-caprolactam”. It has a very wide range of uses, especially in the textile industry. Electrospinning can be briefly defined as the production of submicron fineness fibers by the application of electrostatic forces to a polymer solution or melt. This method includes operational steps such as (i) charging the solution with electric charges (ii) Taylor coning (iii) diluting the polymer jet by instability (whiplash instability) in the electric field (iv) diluting, collecting and solidifying. The polymer jet is converted into fibers on the collection mechanism.

Diameter and morphology of fibers obtained by electrospinning processes, solution properties (viscosity, conductivity, molecular weight and polymer concentration, surface tension, type of solvent), process parameters (electric field strength, distance between feeder and collector, feed amount of solution) and environmental conditions (temperature, humidity) (Chong et al., 2007; Lee et al., 2004). It can be seen that the academic and industry interest in the electrospinning method has increased in recent years as it allows the use of simple and efficient nanofibers. Production of natural and synthetic polymers

Nanofiber-based structures are considered as potential materials, due to their high surface-to-volume ratio, high porosity, and very small pore size (Li and Xia, 2004) As the surface tension increases sharply, electrostatic attraction is said to cause various problems. To overcome this problem, smooth nanofibers can be obtained by blending various polymers.

The chitosan (CS) produced at 2% by weight was dissolved homogeneously in 90% strength acetic acid with stirring for 24 h at room temperature. For 7 hours, homogeneous solution, electrogravity tests were performed. The solutions were mixed using a magnetic stirrer (Stuart, SB 162) for two hours at room temperature. The pH of the prepared solutions was determined using indicator cards (indicator strips, Merck) and their viscosity values. Their conductivity was determined using a Brookfield viscometer (DV-E viscometer). It was measured with a WTW brand device (Cond 3110). A spindle of the type S21 with a rotation of 30 rpm was used for viscometer measurements.

The electrospinning process was performed using a laboratory machine (NanoFMG, NS24) designed on the principle of vertical work. Each solution was transferred to syringes with a volume of 10 ml and introduced into an aluminum foil-covered cylindrical manifold using a 20-gauge delivery unit (nozzle), and the amount of the feed solutions was measured in an electric field of 0.50 ml/hour definitely. And the distance was adjusted to 15 cm. A voltage of 34 kV was applied in electrogravity experiments. Alternating current (AC) was used to create the electric field. The experiments were carried out at a relative humidity of 35-42% and at variable temperatures between 26-31 degrees Celsius.

The polycationic nature of chitosan and the strong intramolecular and intermolecular interactions in its chemical structure create significant problems in the electrospinning process. Strong hydrogen bonds prevent the free movement of polymer chain blocks in the electric field and lead to nozzle cracking during the electrospinning process [Li and Hsieh, 2006; Desai and Keith, 2008). In addition, the repulsive forces between the ionic groups in the polymer chain sufficiently prevent entanglement (entanglement) of the polymer chains. This prevents the formation of sufficient and continuous fibers during stretching, bending and impact instability of the polymer jet. These problems result in the formation of globules or irregular beaded fibers during the elongation of the polymer stream rather than the formation of regular fibers as a result of the electrospinning process.

Electrospinning and Electrospraying

Electrospinning and Electrospraying. As part of the spring semester seminars of the academic year 2017-2018, Spingenix University Faculty of Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Lecturer, Department of R&D Engineering Res. See. Dr. Ali Okyay held a seminar entitled “Electrospray method and its use in food”.

electrospraying and electrospinning

The electrospray method, in its most general definition, is the process of breaking up a liquid into small charged droplets by applying an electric potential to the liquid through which a capillary passes. The size of the droplets obtained in this system can be affected by the conditions of electrospraying as well as the properties of the supplied liquid.

bench-top nanofiber electrospinning and electrospraying unit

Electrospray is a one-step material processing technology with low energy consumption and low cost. In addition, single micro- or nano-dispersed droplets can be produced.

difference between electrospinning and electrospraying

This method is based on the paint industry and is used to reduce solvent consumption, reduce waste generation, increase transfer efficiency to the coated surface and achieve a smooth and repeatable coating.

 

electrospinning and electrospraying processes

In addition to the paint industry, it is used in the pharmaceutical industry to encapsulate the active ingredients of drugs, in the coating of drugs, in the automotive industry, in spraying crops in the field, and as a propellant in space vehicles.

electrospinning and electrospraying with a negative voltage source

In addition, nanoelectrospray can be used in mass spectrometric analysis of biomolecules. This method has gained importance in the food industry in recent years.

The electrospray system is used in the food industry to use flavoring for cooking fish and meat fillets.

electrospraying and electrospinning applications

In recent years, electrospray has been used in the production of edible food coatings. In the framework of the seminar, the use of the electrospray method in food and the benefits of this method were explained in detail, and the experimental results regarding the use of electrospray in the production of edible food coatings were shared.

electrospraying and electrospinning of chocolate suspensions

It can also be used to coat foods with oils, emulsifiers and flavorings. The electrospray method is also used to cover the polishing materials on confectionery and chocolate products.  Pointing out that the electrospray system is used as a flavoring to dry fish and meat fillets in the food industry, Ali Okyaei said, “It can also be used to coat food with oil, emulsifier and flavoring. The Electrospray process is also used to coat the polishing materials on confectionery and chocolate products. In recent years, the electrospray process has been shown to be used in the manufacture of edible food coatings.

New nanotechnologies being developed around the world are revealing wondrous results in many areas that are turning the traditional laws of physics and chemistry upside down. While there is only one company in the world that manufactures nanofibers, Ali Okeyi, who started his activity in this field, is among the companies whose number has reached 13 within 2 years, while Nanotel, which he founded, not only manufactures nanofibers. but also the construction of an electric spinning device that produces nanofibers. Looking for another address, as this opportunity is not recognized early in the food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries, Nanotel focuses on nanofibers with fewer molecules, lightweight and durable airplane wings and filters for sterile hospital air conditions.

electrospray and electrospinning

For example, nanofibers in textiles can be used to produce flame-retardant or waterproof fabrics. Air and water filters that impregnate particles with pollutants and clean them microbiologically… In medicine, wound closure and bone formation or transthermal drugs whose active ingredients enter the body through the skin… cosmetic face masks… encapsulated vitamins and antioxidants to enrich Food … less and longer shelf life food with more natural additives or smart packaging that alerts the consumer to the condition of the food inside

This is not the main goal of Nanotel, an academic company, although they have managed to create their own brand of electrospinning machine, which, by applying high voltage, obtains the solution in the form of conventional nanofiber structures. Nanotel’s commercial goal is to manufacture nanofibers for industries such as food, medicine and cosmetics. “There is an overseas nanotechnology market that is growing rapidly and making big leaps and leaps over the years. This also includes nanofibers. I think Turkey should definitely have an economic stake in it. When I first applied to the TÜBİTAK 1512 program to start a business that would produce commercial nanofibers like mine, there was only one in the world in New Zealand. Today, 13 companies worldwide, including us, can produce nanofibers. That means it went from 1 to 13 within 1.5 years. “It’s amazing,” said Yard, the founder of Nanotel. Ali Okyay says there is another company in Turkey that advertises that it makes nanofibers and is working on filters, but she doesn’t know if it produces electrospinning.