Ac Electrospinning - Spingenix

Ac Electrospinning

SpingenixElectrospinningAc Electrospinning

Ac Electrospinning. Electrospinning is a process of producing nano- to micron-scale fibers from a polymer solution using an electric field. The process involves the use of an electrospinning machine that applies a high voltage to a polymer solution, which is then extruded through a fine nozzle. The resulting electric field draws the polymer solution out into a fine fiber, which is collected on a grounded collector. This process has been used in a variety of applications, such as in the production of wound dressings, drug delivery systems, and tissue engineering scaffolds.

AC electrospinning is a variant of electrospinning that involves the use of an alternating current (AC) electric field instead of a direct current (DC) electric field. This technique has gained increasing attention in recent years due to its ability to produce fibers with unique properties, such as controlled orientation, enhanced mechanical properties, and improved biocompatibility. In this article, we will discuss the principles of AC electrospinning, its advantages and disadvantages, and its applications.

Principles of AC electrospinning

In AC electrospinning, a high voltage AC signal is applied to the polymer solution, resulting in the generation of a pulsating electric field. This pulsating electric field causes the polymer solution to be extruded and drawn out into fibers, similar to DC electrospinning. However, the pulsating nature of the electric field in AC electrospinning results in a more controlled fiber formation, with the ability to create fibers with controlled alignment and improved mechanical properties.

The principles of AC electrospinning are governed by the frequency and amplitude of the AC signal applied to the polymer solution. The frequency of the AC signal determines the pulsating rate of the electric field, while the amplitude determines the strength of the electric field. By varying the frequency and amplitude of the AC signal, the properties of the resulting fibers can be controlled, such as their diameter, alignment, and mechanical properties.

Advantages and disadvantages of AC electrospinning

One of the main advantages of AC electrospinning is its ability to produce fibers with controlled alignment. The pulsating nature of the electric field in AC electrospinning allows for the alignment of the fibers to be controlled, which can be useful in applications such as tissue engineering, where the alignment of the fibers can affect the growth and differentiation of cells. AC electrospinning can also produce fibers with enhanced mechanical properties compared to DC electrospinning, due to the improved alignment of the fibers.

Another advantage of AC electrospinning is its ability to improve the biocompatibility of the resulting fibers. The pulsating nature of the electric field in AC electrospinning can reduce the residual charge on the fibers, which can reduce the toxicity of the resulting fibers and improve their biocompatibility.

However, there are also some disadvantages to AC electrospinning. One of the main disadvantages is the complexity of the equipment required. AC electrospinning machines are more complex than DC electrospinning machines, and require more sophisticated control systems to vary the frequency and amplitude of the AC signal applied to the polymer solution. This can make AC electrospinning more expensive and difficult to set up.

Applications of AC electrospinning

AC electrospinning has a wide range of potential applications, including in tissue engineering, drug delivery, and nanofiltration. In tissue engineering, AC electrospinning can be used to produce aligned fibers that mimic the structure of natural tissues, which can be useful in the regeneration of damaged tissues. In drug delivery, AC electrospinning can be used to produce fibers that release drugs in a controlled manner, improving the efficacy and safety of drug delivery systems. In nanofiltration, AC electrospinning can be used to produce membranes with controlled pore sizes, which can be used in water treatment and other filtration applications.

Electrical and Thermal Properties of Conductive Polymer Nanocomposites

Exfoliated graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) -3 phr was integrated right into PP with enhancing con- centration of dealt with and without treatment kenaf flour 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 weight percent specifically and prepared through melt-extrusion making use of co-rotating twin screw extruder. The resulting poly- mer nanocomposites (PNCs) were identified in regards to electric, thermomechanical, as well as morphological homes. The coefficients of thermal development (CTE) considerably de- creased. The electrical properties decreased with raising fiber content. Nonetheless, despite the decline in electrical conductivity, the composites were still reasonably conductive plications such as sensing units and also electro-magnetic securing with fiber incorporation.


Typically, polymers are perceived as thermal as well as electric insulators. Inclusion of conduc- tive fillers such as carbon derivatives, fibers and metal powders right into an insulative polymer matrix enhances the conductivity of the resulting PNCs [1] There has actually been an increasing progress in operation of GNP as multi-functional phase in PNCs [2] These GNP shows range of homes likewise connected to carbon nanotubes (CNTs) such as flame retardancy, thermal and electric conductivity, mechanical, thermal, and also physical residential or commercial properties along with the affordable as well as layering micro-structures of nanoclay [3, 4] Coefficient of thermal development (CTE) obtained from thermomechanical thermal analysis (TMA) dimension is utilized in assessing the dimensional variant in addition to thermal stresses induced by thermal changes [5] The warmth distortion temperature (or warm deflection temperature) (HDT) of PNCs helps with recognition of is heat-proof home [6] HDT of a polymer product is the temper- ature where contortion of the product attains its optimum at a specific loading as well as rate of home heating under examination problems [7] For PNCs, heat-proof buildings highly rely on level of nanofiller dispersion in matrix, interfacial bond and structure of parts in the PNCs [8] Hence, the objective of the here and now research study is to analyze the impact of boosting inclusion of kenaf fibre of varying loadings on electrical, CTE, and HDT of GNP/PP composite.

2 Speculative Materials

Heterophasic polypropylene (PP) copolymer, SM 240 grade of density of 0.96 g/cm3, with thaw circulation index of 35 g/10 min (230 C and also 2.16 kg load) was bought from Lotte Titan Chemicals Malaysia. The compatibilizer MAPP was bought from DuPont, Dow Elas- tomers, and also Wilmington DE, USA. Kenaf fiber was obtained from Malaysian Agricultural and Growth Institute (MARDI), Kuala Lumpur. GNP-M5 grade composed of 99.5 % carbon and also graphene nanoplatelets of ordinary diameter 5μm, and average density of 6 nm was bought as completely dry flour from XG Sciences, Inc., East Lansing, MI, USA, and applied as obtained.

2.2. Preparation of composites

Polypropylene heterophasic copolymer of SM 240 quality with thickness of 0.96 g/cm3 and melt circulation index of 35 g/10 minutes (230 C and 2.16 kg tons) was dried in a vacuum stove at 80 C for 24 hrs and maleic anhydride (MA) was dried out for 5h at temperature level of 60 C. Kenaf core fiber was ground and also sieved using mesh of 500 μm by means of sieve shaker devices to acquire powdered ke- naf core fibers of sizes 500 μm in longitudinal orientation. In order to reduce the wetness web content, the powdered kenaf flour were oven dried at 60 C for 1 day and also went through drying out at 70 ° C in a vacuum oven till accomplishment of constant weight. All the compounds were thaw intercalated via utilization of Brabender PL 2000 Plastic Programmer counter rotating double screw extruder [with 4 mm rod-die, L/D= 30 as well as D= 25 mm] Extruder melt pressure was about 12 bars with maximized temperature level at 185 C from the feed area to the die head zone. All materials were melting intercalated in a solitary action procedure with different equivalent amounts of GNPs according to the example solution. The focus of GNPs were relied on per hundred of complete composites while 3 phr was chosen as regular addition for all composites.

2.3. Characterization 2.3.1.

Arc-resistance Arc-resistance facilitates understanding right into the resistance of reinforced polymers to raised power discharges throughout their surface areas. Arc-resistingmeasuring devices was utilized inmeasuring arc resistance of the samples according to ASTM D 495 This dimension technique was used in using a 10 KV voltage with a controlled arc-discharge of 10 mA throughout the examples. In addition, the examples weremaintainedwithin 2 electrodes in shape of a chisel in separation by a distance of 0.635 cm.

2.3.2. Volume and also surface area resistivity

ASTM D 257 was made use of in figuring out volume and also surface-resistivity and also measurements
conducted with a Keithlei-electrometer version 610C using disc shaped sample dimensions of 100
mm acquiring values for volume resistivity relative to Formula 1.

Where A represents location = 19.6 as well as t = sample thickness and Rv is given as quantity
resistance. Hence, surface resistivity is attained making use of the expression,
Surface area resistivity (Ω) = A x Rs, where A is given by location = 18.8 and Rs is the resistance
of the surface area.

2.3.3. Vicat softening temperature level
This was established utilizing ASTMD 1525 It is the temperature a circular sample needle
of 1 mm2 underwent penetration of 1 mm deepness into a composite sample. The example dimensions
made use of were of random sample 10 x 10 mm.

2.3.4. Thermal mechanical analysis (TMA).

Thermal mechanical analysis (TMA) for decision of coefficient of thermal development.
( CTE) was conducted utilizing thermomechanical analyzer (TMA 2940-TA Instruments) with.
examples of dimensions 60mm x 10mm x 3mm w adjusted from a home heating price of 2 ° C minutes– 1 at.
area temperature level till 250 ° C in a nitrogen ambience.
2.3.5. Warm deflection temperature.
HDT according to ASTMD648 was performed using GOTECHGT-HV2000WHDT/ VICAT.
devices with samples of sizes 120mm x 4mmx 4mm. Originally, a tons of 0.46 MPa (66 psi).
was implemented, subsequently followed by a greater loading of 1.8 MPa (264 psi). Temperature level.
worths at each details loading and also deflection were collected.


3.1. Arc resistance.
Figure 1 shows the arc resistance of examples. Outcomes expose that arc resistance minutes-.
imized upto 20 % of kenaf flour loading in PP matrix. The treated rice husk shared an.
boost in arc resistance unlike the unattended samples. This is credited to the compatibility.
existing in between the nanofiller, the matrix as well as treated kenaf flour.

3.2. Quantity as well as surface resistivity.
Number 2 exposes the variation of quantity resistivity of kenaf flour PP/GNP nanocomposite.
with enhancing addition of kenaf flour. The volume resistivity sharply reduced at 10 wt.
% loading of kenaf flour. Beyond this factor better inclusion did not trigger any significant.
variation in quantity resistivity.

A comparable fad was observed for treated kenaf PP-GNP products. In this behavior, un-.
treated kenaf flour quantity resistivity demonstrated supremacy in contrast with treated ke-.
naf PP/GNP nanocomposites. The fundamental hydrophilic nature of kenaf flour tended towards.
absorption of water, though minimized after treatment while boosting 10 wt. % kenaf vol-.
ume resistivity of PP/GNP nanocomposites. GNP aided in supporting the formula.
Figure 3 reveals the surface resistivity dependancy of kenaf flour focus in PP/GNP.

Surface area resistivity lessened with enhancing addition of both treated as well as neglected ke-.
naf flour in PP/GNP. This habits is ascribed to the existence of supplementary materials and.
moisture externally of the fiber. Kenaf flour is a farming item as well as its chemical.
constitution is feature of the cellulose kind and also percent. Though restrained largely by.
GNP, cellulose has fondness to moisture absorption, hence enhancing addition of kenaf flour in.
PP matrix enhanced affinity to dampness absorption causing decreased surface area resistivity.
3.3. Vicat softening temperature.
Figure 4 expresses the occurring changes in Vicat softening temperature level (VST) of dealt with and also.
neglected kenaf flour PP/GNP Nanocomposites.

Addition of 20 % kenaf flour kept VST. Nonetheless, further incorporation of kenaf flour.
PP/GNP slightly increased VST in both scenarios. From the foregoing result, it can be.
reasoned that therapy of kenaf flour does not impact the thermal-deformation habits of the.

3.4. Warmth deflection temperature level (HDT).

The HDT of hybrid treated and also unattended KPG nanocomposites are shown in Figure 5.
Normally, HDT shares products tendency to preserve particular tons at boosting tem-.
peratures. The HDT-graph in Figure 5 demonstrates the loved one solution habits of the PNCs.

when employed as heat tons bearing parts. From Figure 5 (a) with regards.
to 0.46 MPa (66 psi) filling of treated hybrid nanocomposites, HDT progressively improved from.
85 C of pristine PP to 133 C at 10 wt. % inclusion of dealt with kenaf. On incorporation of 20 wt.
%, HDT increased to 138 C which later enhanced to 139 C and also 138 C respectively. In com-.
parison with excellent PP, this has to do with 36%, 38 %, 39% and also 38% raises specifically. This.
is associated specially to harmony acquired between treated kenaf flour and GNP in addition to.
premium thermal as well as high modulus of graphene at 1000 MPa [9]

Electrical conductivity as well as HDT of ternary hybrid nanocomposites were examined. Outcomes.
demonstrate the material appropriate for application in the automobile as well as aerospace elements.
where electrical conductivity as well as warm dissipation are vital.

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