Nanospinning technology. Nanotechnology is the most popular field of study in the last twenty years, we have heard a lot about it for years, seminars and congresses are held in its name and it has attracted the attention of many researchers. The discovery of the atomic microscope gave physics and chemistry a very powerful eye at the nanometer scale. With these microscopes, it is possible to observe various processes, interactions and chemical reactions at the nanometer scale, and artificial materials can be made by moving atoms one by one to desired locations in a controlled manner. The properties of materials at the nanoscale are completely different than at the macroscale, and many new properties emerge as the nanoscale is approached. By processing nano-scale materials and utilizing the different properties that have been created, it is possible to produce nano-scale technological devices and materials.
The developments in science and these results have shown how nanoscale materials can offer great opportunities for technology. In the United States, where profit margins in the auto industry and related manufacturing industries have been shrinking, economists saw these opportunities before anyone else and influenced President Clinton to make nanotechnology a priority area. Then, starting in 1997, it developed rapidly around the world. From now on, nanotechnology is regarded as a technological revolution that will leave its mark after the computer revolution in the 21st century.
Considered the decisive technological revolution of the new century, nanotechnology is still in its latency period. This vital technology is expected to complete its development and permeate all walks of life by 2025. One-dimensional one-dimensional nanostructures such as fibers, wires, rods and tubes have attracted the attention of many researchers in recent years due to their properties and open up the possibility of uses (e.g. electronics, optoelectronics, electrochemistry). Recently, interest in nanofibers (nanofibers) has increased due to the demands of daily life such as environment, health and safety. Some reasons for using nanofibers; They can be achieved by increasing the available area per unit mass, creating very stable structures with different diameters, multilayer structures, very stable, more durable and lighter, using less material in production, using less electricity and winning the name . High filtering performance. There is a production technique. Such as drawing method, pattern synthesis method (pattern synthesis), phase separation, self-assembly, electrospinning. The most common method is electrospinning, which translates as electrospinning in Turkish. Some characteristics can be listed to explain why this method is used. Using a simple and cheap device to create fibers of different diameters makes the synthesis process easier.
Electrospinning is a method developed by many later scientists when William Gilbert was concerned with the changes in high voltage fluids in the 16th century.The polymer beam hits the fixed aluminum layer from the tip of the needle. High voltage is applied to the gap between the needle tip and the blade. In this way, the fibers, which look like a fine thread, dry the diaper in the space between them, and by stacking many fibers, the appearance of cotton is obtained.
An average electrical voltage of 15-18 kV is applied, which is much higher than the voltage we use at home (200 V). The polymer solution is prepared according to the intended use of the fibers, and a volatile solvent is used for the solution because it is desirable that the solvent evaporate between the needle tip and the sheet.
The main logic here is as follows; Electronized polymer solution atoms are stored with positive and negative charges at the tip of the needle. Atoms that begin to repel each other begin to move when the applied voltage reaches a threshold. During this movement, the solvent evaporates and the rest of the solid solution comes to the surface in the form of fibers.
There are many parameters in electrospinning process, some of them are: solution conductivity, surface tension, solution viscosity, molecular weight, voltage, flow rate, collector needle spacing, collector efficiency, syringe diameter.
Too many parameters can be seen as a weak point of this method. However, it allows the synthesis of materials with different properties by changing the parameters.