How are nanofibers made. A change in humidity can also affect the surface morphology of electrospun PS fibers, as Casper et al. . Nahrassi et al.  observed that low humidity (5% RH) binds beads to fine fibers, but increasing RH (to 20-75% RH) yields smooth fibers for poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). In addition, fiber density decreased when relative humidity increased from 50 to 75% (Figure 14). Nanofibers are materials that have been widely used in tissue engineering in recent years, especially in the manufacture of 3D tissues. Among the reasons for the popularity of nanofibers in this field are the following: the three-dimensional and porous space they offer, their ability to biodegrade and the determination of the substance content according to the needs of the tissue. Nanofiber materials used in tissue engineering studies are selected from natural or synthetic polymers.
Although there are various methods for producing nanofibers, the most common method is electrospinning. In the electrospinning process, a voltage is applied to the polymer by a power source, and the polymer is collected as fibers on the collector. The diameter of nanofibers can be put together depending on the area of application. Depending on the density of the nanofibers, the pore size can also be adjusted. In the electrospinning setup, nanofibers are obtained once the Taylor cone is formed at the end of the syringe. A Taylor cone is formed by an electric current applied to a polymer solution. Tapered polymer accumulates in the form of nanofibers thanks to the electric field in the nozzles on the collector. Fixed or rotating collectors can be used in the electrospinning mechanism. Rotating collectors ensure that the nanofibers formed are collected regularly and in a targeted manner.
How are nanofibers made
In tissue engineering applications, nanofibers are used as tissue scaffolds. nanofiber scaffolds; They provide a natural three-dimensional environment for cell growth, development, proliferation, and migration (2). Nanofiber scaffolds are derived from natural or synthetic polymers. The most basic criterion when choosing a polymer is that the polymer is biocompatible. Biocompatible polymers allow cells to grow on nanofibers and are non-toxic to cells. In addition to being biocompatible, polymers can be biodegradable depending on the type of tissue being studied. The biodegradability of the polymers used in the manufacture of nanofibers is very important for the growth and development of the cells of these structures. Nanofiber scaffolds, which degrade as cells grow, provide habitat for new cells and allow cells to form 3D tissues. Although the property of biodegradability is very important in the development of 3D tissues, the degradation steps need to be well understood. In order for the polymer not to harm cell life, the polymer and its degradation products need not be toxic to cells. In addition, the fact that nanofiber degradation coincides with cell growth is important for tissue integrity. The breakdown of the nanofiber scaffold together with the increase in cell number helps to ensure tissue integrity on the one hand and makes room for newly grown cells on the other.
When designing nanofibrous scaffolds, bioactive minerals can be added to the polymer structure. For example, for the scaffold structure in which bone tissue cells grow. Minerals such as hydroxyapatite crystals and calcium phosphate can be added to synthetic polymers. Hydroxyapatite and calcium phosphate crystals are minerals found in bone structure. Studies have observed that the addition of these materials to the nanofibrous scaffold structure has beneficial effects on bone cell proliferation, growth and differentiation. In addition, minerals increase the strength of the nanofiber structure and provide a more stable growth environment for bone tissue cells.
After the nanofibers are fabricated as tissue scaffolds, they are sterilized under UV light or with ethylene oxide. After application of sterilization, cell growth, proliferation and differentiation on nanofibrous scaffolds are ensured under sterile conditions and in the humidity and carbon dioxide environment required by the cells, and provide the necessary nutrient environment for the cells in the cell culture environment.