Electrospinning process and applications of electrospun fibers.Nanofibers, nanofibers, are fine fibers with mean fiber diameters in the nanometer range (nm = 9-10 m), which correspond to about one-thousandth of a human hair. For fibers in general, the term “nano” provides information about the diameter size of the fibers. Today, “fibers one micron in diameter and smaller” are called nanofibers because fibers one micron in diameter or smaller cannot be produced with current fiber manufacturing processes.
Electrospinning process and applications of electrospun fibers
One of the newest technologies developed for the production of these fibers is the process of electrical manufacture (electrospinning). In general, many applications show that the nanofibers under investigation will soon find their way into many areas of life. The electrospinning process is the most efficient and simplest method to produce polymer-based nanofibers. In addition, the production of nanofibers is possible with special spinning processes and gas vapor growth processes. Among the areas of use of nanofibers we can mention things like filtration applications, battery separators, wound dressings, external coatings and respiratory membrane coating applications.
Electrospinning; It is a simple but comprehensive process to create very fine fibers from a variety of materials including polymers, composites and ceramics. The electrospinning assembly consists of three main components: a high-voltage power supply, a syringe with a metal needle, and a conductive collector. Although it may seem very complicated, it is actually a simple process mechanism that produces nanofibers. According to Liu et al. For example, the electrospinning process can be divided into several techniques, such as vibratory electrospinning, magnetic electrospinning, siro electrospinning, and bubble electrospinning. As the fill liquid jet moves from the syringe tip to the manifold, the flow pattern changes from resistive flow to convective flow, and the charge moves instead of the fiber surface. Slow acceleration is a feature of resistive flow because the geometry of the Taylor cone is controlled by the surface tension electrostatic repulsion ratio . Once the ohmic flow a is successfully achieved, rapid movement begins in the liquid to dry solid transition region of the jet. Beam collectors [3, 4, 5]. This represents the cone-like shape formed only at the tip of the needle, called the “Taylor cone” (Figure 1).
In 1964 Sir Geoffrey Ingram Taylor described this cone  as a continuation of Zeleny’s  work on the formation of a cone-shaped jet subjected to high electric fields. Much research has been done in this area, including Wilson and Taylor, Nolan and Mackey . However, it was Taylor who continued to explore the interactions between droplets and electric fields. Taylor’s results are based on two assumptions: (1) that the surface of the cone is an equipotential surface and (2) that the cone exists in stationary equilibrium. Immediately after the Taylor cone has been discharged and activated, a polymer jet  made up of randomly charged polymer fibers is directed onto the ground metal plate, where the solvent evaporates. In the case of cast iron, the exiting jet solidifies as it travels through the air and deposits on the ground metal plate . Friedrich et al  assumed that the tip diameter of the whip jet (ht) is controlled by the flow velocity (Q), the electric current (I) and the surface tension of the fluid (γ). Eq…
where ε¯ is the dielectric constant, (x) is the displacement. Equivalent (A); It proposes an estimate of the minimum jet thinning where the final diameter of the whip jet is controlled by the flow velocity, electric current and fluid surface tension, neglecting the effects of elasticity and fluid evaporation.
The electrospinning machine is easy to operate and contains only three main components: a high-voltage power supply, a fluid control pump or non-flowing polymer solution reservoir (such as a syringe with a small-diameter needle), and a collection plate deliver up to 50kV, and depending on the number of electrosymjets, multiple independent outputs may be required. The polymer solution is stored in a tank and connected to a power source to form a charged polymer jet. The polymer solution can be introduced into the polymer solution using a syringe with a metal needle or with a metal capillary. When the syringe is not horizontal (in a vertical position), polymer flow can be steered by gravity. However, to eliminate experimental variables, a syringe pump is used to control the precise flow rate. The fiber collection plate must be conductive and a fixed plate or a rotating platform or bed can be used. A platen can produce non-woven fibers, while a rotary platform can produce both non-woven fibers and aligned fibers.